When the male partner has no sperm or his sperms are abnormal or carry genetic abnormality which can be transmitted to the progeny , they need donated sperms of some other male who is willing to donate sperm which would fuse with eggs of the female partner to form an embryo. Such Sperm donors are screened for Viral markers and common ailments like Thalasemia and sperm stored in bank according to phenotypic characters and obtained for carrying out ART procedures after Due Consent from the Couple.
When the female partner is unable to produce the egg due to various reasons like menopause, premature ovarian failure or age factor, the infertile couple seeks a woman who would donate eggs in place of a sum of money. These eggs are fertilized and implanted in the womb of the desired mother. Thereafter, children are born naturally. The desired mother has to undergoes sessions of hormonal therapy to prepare endometrium for receiving such embryos. and once pregnant the pregnancy with be managed as any other ART Pregnancy.
When both the male partner and the female partner are infertile, they opt for embryo donation. In this, the embryo is developed by infusing the sperm and eggs of the donor couple and the embryo is implanted in the uterus of the female partner. The couple who are donating the sperm and eggs undergo a series of tests to determine any medical ailment or the quality of sperm and eggs. The chosen oocyte donor as well as sperm donor should match characters of commissioning couple.